Meduxnekeag River Association

Meduxnekeag Flora

  1. Rare Appalachian Hardwood Forest Plants
  2. Appalachian Hardwood Forest Trees
  3. Other Flowering Plant Species
  4. Other Forest Trees
  5. Some Plants of Other Forest Types
  6. Some Other Common Plants
  7. Some Shrubs
  8. Some Common Ferns

Other Flowering Plant Species

The following plant species are considered common; found in many forested sites in the Meduxnekeag and elsewhere in New Brunswick; usually though not always in tolerant hardwood forest. Some, of course, are more commonly found than others. Some, like bloodroot, are abundant in certain areas like the Meduxnekeag watershed but not found at all in some other parts of the province. Others, like spikenard, are considered to have “conservation significance”, without actually falling into the very rare, rare, or uncommon categories.

Spikenard (Aralia recemosa); large multi-stemmed bushy plant, flowering in mid-summer; easily seen beside the wood road in Bell Forest not far from the entrance; showy dark purple berries, in clusters, held above the leaves, in late summer.  
Jack-in-the-Pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum); June flowering, with three leaves and a separate flower stalk; flower is green streaked with purple outside and purple inside. Prefers rich hardwood forests and moist, often streamside, sites. Some plants produce a tight cluster of red berries in late summer.
Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis); flowers abundantly in many Meduxnekeag locations in May; perhaps best seen from a canoe along the north bank of the river between Red Bridge and the old railway bridge. Also very abundant at the entrance to Bell Forest.
Canada Yew (Taxus canadensis); low evergreen spreading shrub, usually under deciduous trees or at forest edges; aka Ground Hemlock; branches now extensively harvested as a medicinal.
Yellow Violet (Viola pubescens); an indicator of rich forests, often found at woodland edges.
False Solomon’s-Seal (Smilacina racemosa); common plant of rich hardwood forests; may also persist in fencerows and other formerly wooded land. Flowers at the tip of the stalk in Spring, followed by clusters of brownish berries in late Summer.
Solomon’s-Seal (polygonatum pubescens); frequent in hardwood and sometimes in mixed forests; flowers hang from the underside of the stalk.  

Enchanter’s Nightshade (Circaea lutetiana); rich woodland plant, frequently abundant; flowers in summer; seeds are hooked for ready dispersal by passers-by.


Red Trillium (Trillium erectum); early spring flower; sometimes known as “Stinking Trillium” from its strong odour; abundant in rich hardwoods, persisting in many other shady locations.


Zig-Zag Goldenrod (Solidago flexicaulis); most common in rich hardwoods, but also found in other woodland sites; as the name suggests, the stem zig-zags rather than grows straight.


White Baneberry (Actaea pachypoda); common in rich hardwoods; flowers in late spring in a cluster above the leaves, followed by white berries in late summer; sometimes known as “dolls’-eyes”, from the resemblance of the berries (which are poisonous to humans).



Common Toothwort (Dentaria dyphylla); late spring flower; pinkish-white flowers in clusters above the leaves; often found in large groups.


Large Toothwort (Dentaria maxima); less common but similar to the above.


Trout Lily (Erythronium americanum); one of the very earliest –  and most common –  spring flowers; also known as Dog-tooth Violet and Adder’s Tongue; a classic “spring ephemeral” whose leaves and flowers have completely vanished by mid-summer.

Dutchman’s-Breeches (Dicentra cucullaria); another spring ephemeral, with small creamy flowers shaped like breeches held above delicate lacy foliage. Abundant in rich sites like Bell Forest where it flourishes near the entrance on either side of the trail.

Sweet Cicely (Osmorhiza claytoni); found in moist woods, flowering in late spring; lower leaves are large and fernlike; flowers small and sparse; the name refers to the roots which have a sweetish licorice or anise scent.


Hooked Buttercup (Ranunculus recurvatus); small petals, flowers in late spring to early summer; common.


Spring Beauty (Claytonia virginica); low-growing plant with delicate white-to-pink-to-purple violet-like “pin-striped” flowers in May; usually found in rich hardwoods.


Wild Oats (Uvularia sessifolia); also known as Sessile Bellwort; flowers from late May with small creamy yellow bell-shaped dangling blossoms.

Great-spurred Violet (Viola selkirkii); one of the so-called “stemless” violets with leaves and flowers on separate stalks.  






Community Stewardship for the Meduxnekeag Watershed Region
Last update : October 6, 2005