Appalachian Hardwood Forest sites in New Brunswick have four characteristic, or “marker”, tree species along with many other hardwood species.
Basswood (Tilia americana); one of the marker species; considered to have “conservation significance”; can reach more than a metre in diameter although trees this size are rare; often has two trunks, with little branching below the crown; large basswood frequently have cavities and become den trees for birds or mammals.
Butternut (Jugulans cinerea); another AHF marker; widespread in the watershed; now being threatened by a canker, first detected here in 1997, which has devastated butternut stands in other parts of eastern North America.
White Ash (Fraxinus americana); an AHF marker; widespread in the watershed.
Ironwood (Ostrya virginiana); an AHF marker, aka Eastern Hophornbeam; small tree seldom reaching more than 30 cm in diameter; very hard wood; fruit hang in clusters similar to hops.
Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum); probably the most common tree in AHF sites.
Yellow Birch (Betula alleghaniensis); one of the more long-lived hardwoods, found in AHF sites, but also in other locations, often with hemlock.
American Beech (Fagus grandifolia); once one of the most common and widespread forest hardwoods, beech is increasingly subject to a canker which arrived here from Europe in the early 20th century; few beech now reach large size.
American Elm (Ulmus americana); far less common than previously in the region’s forests; Dutch Elm Disease, now present locally for more than half a century, has killed most of the large elms.
Black Cherry (Prunus serotina); scattered throughout AHF sites, sometimes reaching more than 40 cm in diameter.